The ALLEN Patrilineage 1 Project

The ALLEN Patrilineage 1 Project

This ALLEN patrilineage project is dedicated to furthering the genealogical research of the members, each of whom has sponsored a Family Tree ySTR DNA test of 37 markers (or better) that matches to the haplotype pattern for this ALLEN patrilineage. Our goal is to promote both individual and collaborative genealogical research aimed at reconstructing the overall tree of descent from the patriarch common to all of the members, using their ySTR DNA test results to guide us in our research, and our conclusions.

NPEs (Non-Paternity Events) and non-ALLEN Surnames

Of the current members of this project, several grew up with surnames other than ALLEN, indicating that an NPE has occurred somewhere in their ancestral lineage. This is typical of most patrilineages. There is a small chance every generation of an NPE occurring, and these chances accumulate from one generation to the next. The 2.5% estimate I use for NPEs/generation is typical, and going back to ALLEN ancestors born about 1650, predicts that 20% of the male descendants will bear surnames other than ALLEN, which is about the proportion in the present project.

Unfortunately, it can be challenging to trace an NPE line back to the ancestor who bore the original surname, because so many of these surname changes left no trace in the documentary records, whether by inadvertence or intention. And until the genealogical gap has been bridged between the new surname and the old, there must be some additional question about whether the NPE descendants of the patrilineage really belong. However, where the genetic distance (GD) relationship between a patrilineage NPE and a member bearing the predominant surname is reasonably close (GD 2 or less for the recommended FTDNA 37-marker test), there is little room for doubt.

A Genealogical and yDNA Overview of ALLEN Patrilineage 1

This patrilineage is one of the two largest, most deeply-rooted, and most extensively researched ALLEN patrilineages in the United States. What’s most striking about the genealogies and haplotypes of this patrilineage is how tightly knit they are, both genetically and genealogically.

Indeed, all of the current members of this project most likely descend from a small set of closely related early Virginia immigrants who probably shared a common patriarch born say 1620, who probably did not emigrate to the New World. The descendants of this line, following the usual tidewater settlement pattern, spread gradually out into the Virginia Piedmont and Southside, and thence either to the Carolinas, and on into the deep South, or (sticking to the same latitude) into Tennessee or Kentucky, and west from there.

Most of the members of this patrilineage have extended their test results to 111-markers and this has helped shed light on the somewhat shadowy top of the common ancestral tree back in Virginia. A project mutation history tree, and notes in red on the ALLEN Descendancies page relate the specific mutational patterns to what is known about the genealogy, but all of this is very much a work in progress.

The Earliest Known Allen Patrilineage 1 Patriarchs

First, there appears to have been a line of three successive Williams, the first of whom, William1, was probably an immigrant from Britain, and born no later than 1650. Solid evidence links William1 to his son William2, who is also known to have had a son William3, but the identification of the latter with

William (say 1687 - 1752) of NewKent, Goochland, & Albemarle Cos VA)

whom I have christened “William of Albemarle”, rests primarily on none too strong circumstantial evidence. At any rate, this latter William is known to have married twice, and to have had sons Samuel, William Hunt, John, Valentine, George Hunt, and Phillip, and whose first generation descendants, who are well accounted for, remained in the area where their patriarch ended up, which became Buckingham and Amherst counties by 1762—all except Valentine, who removed to Rockingham County, North Carolina. Many of William of Albemarle’s third and fourth generation descendants are found next in Tennessee—in the counties of DeKalb, Williamson, Marshall, or Fayette.

All the other known Allen patriarchs of this patrilineage appear to be either brothers, or close cousins. These others, of the generation born between 1700-1730, were:

Robert Jr (say 1709 - abt 1783) of NewKent & Lunenburg Cos VA, and CaswellCoNC
William (say 1725 - 1789) of Lunenburg & Mecklenburg Cos VA)
David (say 1728 - abt 1805) of BrunswickCoVA, JohnstonCoNC, & SpartanburgCoSC
Reynold (say 1730 - abt 1808) of Granville, Johnston, Wake, and Iredell Cos NC

That William and David were brothers is shown by the fact that Francis Wray of LunenburgCoVA made deeds of gift to each of them, calling them sons-in-law. Meanwhile Robert also appears as a resident of LunenburgCo (hived off from BrunswickCo), while Reynold's nearby BrunswickCo land apparently fell into GranvilleCoNC when the state line between VA and NC was resurveyed. There are other associations and transactions amongst these four and Francis Wray. For example, both Wray and Reynold Allen removed to JohnstonCoNC, and there is a deed from one to the other there. Most telling of all: all four of these men named sons Young Allen, and the other given names of their sons, including “Drury”, overlap extensively.

MILLERS has made Robert (say 1709 - abt 1853) a son of

Robert Sr (say 1680 - abt 1756) of NewKent & Henrico Cos VA

an hypothesis I have adopted for reasons too complicated to go into here. Although one might suppose Robert Jr to be a brother of William, David, and Reynold, there is no evidence that Robert Sr had sons named David or Reynold, and his son William, can be tracked from HanoverCoVA (where both his father Robert, and his brother Robert owned land) to GranvilleCoNC. Thus, patriarch William Allen of Lunenburg and Mecklenburg Cos, who was a brother of David and named sons Young and Drury, cannot readily be made a son of Robert Sr.

Several other Allens of Robert Sr's generation have been suggested as fathers of William, David, and Reynold, including another Robert Allen of Maryland who is known to have had a son named Reynold(s); I will consider this theory in more detail in the next section. Unfortunately for this theory, there are records for NewKentCo, where Robert Sr and his young family lived, for both a Reynold and a David Allen who were contemporaries of Robert Sr, and either of these, who were likely brothers, may have been the father of William, David, and Reynold; or there may have been another Allen brother or close relation in NewKentCo whose name has been lost.

Be that as it may, it appears that Robert Jr, son of Robert Sr, was not a brother of William, David, and Reynold, but given the fact that he too named a son Young, it is likely that he was a first cousin and shared a maternal grandmother of that name with the other three.

Three of these four patriarchal Allens migrated south to the Carolinas, and even to Georgia, and many lines moved on from there across the deep south all the way to Texas. Only a minority of these Allens either remained in Virginia, or migrated to Tennessee.

The Putative Maryland Connection: Two Roberts and two Reynolds ALLENs

The principal published source for this ALLEN Patrilineage is MILLERS, but at least two researchers, Sara Carpenter Allen, who died in 2003, and Melba Allen of Mississippi, who is still with us, have uncovered Allens in Maryland who were likely members of this patrilineage. Unfortunately, although some of the relevant evidence has been brought forward and circulated in an informal manner, no comprehensive published case that I am aware of has been made for the connection between these Maryland ALLENs and the ones found in Virginia records. Indeed, the connection seems to rest largely on the coincidence of the names Robert and Reynold(s) Allen in both Calvert Co MD, and later in Brunswick Co VA, where the name Robert appears in 1742, and Reynold in 1745—this, according to Melba Allen who has researched both sets of records.

BrunswickCo, from the time it was created (on paper) in 1720, until 1746, when LunenburgCo was hived off of it, constituted the cismontane SW frontier of Virginia, stretching hundreds of miles—the “old Southside”. Then, between 1746 and 1752, when Bedford and Halifax Cos were created from Lunenburg, the latter county bore this mantle.

This county genealogy is important, because we have rare surviving tax lists (most colonial VA tax lists are lost) for Lunenburg covering the period 1748-1752 and beyond, and many ALLENs appear on these Lunenburg lists, some of them claimed by researchers Melba and Sara Allen to be brothers of Reynold Allen of BrunswickCo, who with his father Robert were said to have been relegated to North Carolina in the 1745/6 border adjustment, and the others to have fallen into Lunenburg from Brunswick.

But based on the evidence in MILLERS, many if not most of these ALLENs can be associated instead with Robert Allen of NewKent and Henrico Cos. And most telling of all, a Reynold Allen is found in NewKentCo from 1689-1710, evidently an older contemporary (and perhaps a brother or uncle) of Robert Allen of that place.

Although MILLERS has abstracted the Lunenburg records, and attempted to show associations between certain of these ALLENs (indicated by indentation and by noting the name of the tax commissioner) the grounds for these associations are far from clear, and the context of the records is lacking: we would like to know, for example, which years were missing, whether there are tax records for any of the daughter counties of Lunenburg for the period, and what relation the county sublists, grouped by geography, bore to the landholdings of the individual families involved. It is on the interpretation of these various records that much of the case for the structure of these ALLEN families is bound to rest. As it is, the case remains up in the air.

Possible ALLEN Roots in the Old World

Stepping backward from the American colonial evidence, there are also two theories of ALLEN origin in the Old World. According to Melba Allen, there is evidence that both Thomas Allen (father of the Maryland Robert) and Edward Reynolds (Robert’s father-in-law) came from Gravesend, in the far northwest corner of Kent, in England.

Meanwhile in MILLERS, a family of ALLENs, children of one Richard Allen, rector of St Mildred's Canterbury, deep in the heart of Kent, is found to include sons, Reynold (born about 1609), Richard, and Thomas, with evidence that Reynold ended up in Barbados, which was a feeder to much Virginia immigration. Thus, it is quite likely that the Reynold Allen who appears early in NewKentCo was a grandson of Reynold of Barbados, especially since a third early Allen of NewKentCo, a contemporary of both Reynold and Robert, was named Richard. Evidently, the association of the names REYNOLD(S) and ALLEN (both of them ultra-common names) is less than unique, unless some evidence can be developed on the other side of the pond showing that the Allens of Gravesend, which lies on the Thames, far from Canterbury, and is essentially a satellite port of London, were in some way related to the churchly Allen family.

And speaking of London, one of the early ALLEN immigrants to Virginia was William Allen, merchant of London. This William in 1640 patented 600a in CharlesRiverCo, later YorkCo, which was the progenitor of NewkentCo. Was this early William the same William Allen who died in YorkCo by 1677, and who is quite likely the grandfather of William Allen of NewKent and Albemarle Cos—the patriarch of several project members? It is perhaps worth noting here H.T.ALLEN’s suggestion that these Virginia ALLENs came from a family in Thaxsted, Essex (just 10 miles from central London), in which the given names Richard, Chrisopher, and Reinold run.

The ALLEN Patrilineage 1 DNA

Upstream Mutations that Define Patrilineage/Family Sub-branches

The watershed mutation, discovered by extending the majority of member’s haplotypes to 111 markers, is DYS504. The minority of members who can trace credible descents back to one of the early patriarchs, fall into one of two camps: those with the value DYS504=17 appear to descend from either Robert Sr of HenricoCoVA, or William of AlbemarleCoVA, while those who are DYS504=16 trace back to either Reynold of IredellCoNC or William of MecklenburgCoVA. I have, somewhat arbitrarily, labeled DYS504=16 the mutated value, but it wouldn't much matter for sorting out purposes if DYS504=17 was the mutated value instead. What is important for genealogical purposes is that these two variant values provide some basis for reconstructing the top of the genealogical tree.

Ordinarily, the mutation history tree would provide the clearest, most graphic, representation of the relationship between the tree of accumulated mutations, and what we know or can infer about the genealogy, but I have postponed revising it to incorporate the new DNA knowledge pending completion of my genealogical reconstruction of the top of the tree. The current version of the tree does, though, reflect what we know of the other shared upstream mutations in the current set of member haplotypes.

One of these is the mutated value DYS572=11, that’s shared by all three of the known descendants of William of Albemarle: significantly, all of these gentlemen are also DYS504=17. Likewise, seven members share the mutation DYS447=24, and one of these, Donna-08, has a credible descent from the patriarch Robert Sr of HenricoCoVA; all of these tested descendants are also DYS504=17.

There is always a chance with shared mutations that instead of having been inherited from a common ancestor (thus stamping all who bear these mutations as descendants of that ancestor) they have occurred independently in two or more lines. It is very unlikely, however, that any of the three upstream mutations discussed so far are the result of independent mutation, as all three of the corresponding markers have relatively low mutation rates. This is not the case, though, with the other two shared upstream mutations with possible genealogical significance.

Variant Values of the DYS464 Multicopy Marker

There are many variant values in the project of the multicopy marker DYS464. This is a very important marker, both because with its four parts it constitutes 4 of the 37 markers that are conventionally ascribed to the most popular FTDNA marker panel test, and also because it is highly prone to mutate. However, the evaluation of this marker is problematic and error prone, which is why FTDNA offers the optional DYS464X test to provide a more accurate reading of it. Unless this test is run, there is no way to be sure just how many copies the marker has (usually the number is 4), or to determine the order in which they occur on the Y-chromosome. There are subjective, sample-dependent, elements in the reading of DYS464, that can yield different values at different times to different techicians.

Even so, scanning across the many haplotypes in the project, it is apparent that the normal (unmutated) values of DYS464 are 11-14-14-15, though their order is unknown (it is only by convention that the component values are listed in order from low to high). What is also apparant is that there are a number of variant values, with many coming out at 11-11-14-14. However, without running the DYS464X test, there is no way to be sure that these particular variants are all the same, and that the fact that they are shared by a number of people has any genealogical significance.

That’s why I suggested that a few key people order the DYS464X test, and this has helped to sort out the confusion. It turns out that both BillB-01 and Betty-23 (representing Hal Bybee) are actually both DYS464X=11g-14g, not the original 11-11-14-14 that they seem to share also with BillB-L-12, and with Joe-25 and -26. As a mattr of fact, BillB-L, though shown as 11-11-14-14, was actually read as 11-11-14-14-14-15, but there is more or less conclusive genealogical evidence that he is a close relative of BillB-01: we may thus reasonably infer that if we were to test BillB-L on DYS464X, the he too would test out as 11g-14g. We cannot presume the same thing for Joe-25 and -26, though, and it would be very desirable, as I suggested earlier, to test Joe-25 on DYS464X to see whether his line experienced the same mutation as the BillB-01 and Betty-23 line, although given their markedly different genealogies and DNA I would expect not.

Although DYS464 as a whole is highly prone to mutate, and thus in principle likely also to mutate independently in several different lines, because there are many ways that it can mutate (not just up one or down one like ordinary markers), it appears that the chances that it will mutate independently in exactly the same way are exceedingly remote. At least that is the principle I am following in my DNA interpretation. Consequently, the fact that these two BillB lines that trace back through Texas to Tennessee, share the 11g-14g value with Betty-23, appears to have major genealogical significance both for her line and Bill’s, indicating that they belong to the same family sub-branch. And this is extremely interesting and unexpected genealogically because Betty’s Bybee ancestry is rooted in central and northern Virginia, spreading from there into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, while BillB’s line, insofar as it is known, appears to run back to through Texas to Tennessee.

Two other project members have tested their variant DYS464s: Cary-02 has confirmed that his is 11g-13g-14g-15g, while LouDean-07 has confirmed that her variant value is 11g-14g-14g-14g. It would be desirable both for a few other members to order the DYS464X test (which costs only $25), in particular, Joe-25 (to rule out a possible close cousin relationship to the Bybee/Allen line of central Virginia. I’d also like to see the results of one or two of our normal (11-14-14-15) member DYS values just to be sure of the baseline, in particular the values for Camilla-06, who is the project RPH.

Other shared mutations

The final mutation of possible genealogical significance is CDYb=33, shared by members, Dr.Bob-04, Owen-10, and Diane-22, as well as BillB-01 and Betty-23. This marker, though, is the the most prone mutable of all (DYS464 collectively, excepted), thus it is likely that it has mutated independently in two or more of these lines. Whether it has, is a judgement call, appropriately guided both by the degree of correspondence between the other markers of the DNA haplotypes, and by what is known of the respective genealogies.

On this basis, and considering that BillB-01 and Betty-23 are already linked by their shared DYS464 values, I take their sharing of the mutated CDYb value to be confirmation of their close cousinly relationship (however genealogically improbable it may seem), while I am deeply skeptical of the proposition that they inherited this mutation from a common ancestor with Dr.Bob-04, who is DYS504=16 (while BillB and Betty are DYS504=17), and is known to descend from William of Mecklenburg: in fact I reject this proposition outright.

However, it is very tempting to conclude that the fact that Dr.Bob-04 shares the same CDYb mutation with Diane-22, also DYS504=16 and also known to descend from William of Mecklenburg through a different son, that both inherited it from William of Mecklenburg himself. It would be very desirable to have such a far upstream marker pointing to such an early and important patriarch, but we immediately run into an objection: the haplotype of Lynda-09, who has an equally good descent from William, lacks the mutation. Is this because this highly mutable marker just happened to mutate independently in the same way in the lines of two sons of William across the 14 genetic transmissions that separate them, or is it instead that sometime in Lynda’s line during the 7 generations since William the mutated marker mutated back to its original value? The probabilities favor the first of these propositions, but I hesitate to draw any strong conclusions in this case, even though I’d like to.

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PRINCIPAL ALLEN SOURCES

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ALLENS OF CRIBBS CREEK
Reva Nance Carpenter and Virginia Nance McKee, The Allens of Cribbs Creek in Burnsville Township, Anson County, North Carolina, and Related Families (CharlotteNC, the author, 1979)

This book focuses on William Allen of MecklenburgCoVA, and his children, especially those who migrated to AnsonCoNC. It follows the line of project member Lynda-09 (also the line of co-author, Reva Carpenter) down to the 20th century. There is much evidence regarding ALLENs other than William or his descendants for many other counties besides AnsonCo, but most of the evidence is presented in a rather vague abstract format, although book and page citations are generally provided.

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ALLENS OF FAYETTE
Elizabeth Allen Moore and Mary Elizabeth Allen, The Allens of Fayette County, Tennessee, and related families (WhitneyTX: published by the authors, 1980)

The focus here, as in ALLENS OF CRIBBS CREEK, is on William of Mecklenburg and descendants, and particularly the lines which ended up in FayetteCoTN. These two books were published about the same time, and there is much overlap between them. As with ALLENS OF CRIBBS CREEK, This book includes much evidence pertaining to other ALLEN lines; for example, it includes a short chapter on Young Allen of WakeCoNC, whom it hypothesizes (incorrectly) to have been the brother of William of Mecklenburg, and of David of SpartanburgCoSC, all three said to have been the son of Robert Allen (presumably the one born in NewKentCoVA).

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SIMMONS
William Nelson Simmons & Lovell Bickham Simmons
Ancestors and Descendants of Gabriel C. Allen:
a southern Mississippi family & some related families

(BatonRougeLA, 2007)

This book, compiled and published by Bill Simmons as the fruition of research begun by his uncle and co-author, is for the most part typical in many ways of contemporary family descendancies: long on conclusions, butexceedingly short on cited evidence, let alone analytical discussion of such evidence. The book was apparently begun merely for the purpose of organizing and publishing what had been accumulated about Felix Lafayette Allen, born say 1781 in NC.

However, as Bill got deeper into his subject and began to probe for the ancestors of Felix, he became an ever more accomplished genealogist, and ended up searching for and finding the evidence necessary to make a full-fledged and convincing case, not only for Felix’s father Gabriel Allen, but for Gabriel’s father Jacob, and the first part of the book, consisting of some 40 large pages of evidence and detailed argument, that not only makes his case for Jacob, but points beyond to Jacob’s probable roots in Hanover and New Kent Counties, Virginia.

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Bill_A_ALLEN
William Alfred Allen, History of George Hunt and Mary Ogilvie Allen and their Descendants and Related Families, Ogilivie, Ewing, and Fonville (published by author, 2005)

Project member Bill_A-03’s book follows the line of Valentine Allen of RockinghamCoNC (1730-1797), son of William of AlbemarleCo, to his descendants in TN and beyond. Although formal citations are omitted in the interests of readability, this book is very well researched and the material presented is developed directly from the evidence that underlies it. Consequently, although written with the novice in mind, it is persuasive even to readers who are accomplished genealogists.

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Donald_ALLEN
Donald Lee Allen, History of the Allen Family of England, Virginia, Tennessee, Texas, Oklahoma and California, 1600-2000: Descendants of William Allen and Mary Hunt Minge (BaltimoreMD: Gateway Press Inc, 2000)

Project member Donald-05’s book follows the line of John Allen of AlbemarleCoVA (1726-1754), son of William of AlbemarleCo, to his descendants in TN and beyond. This book is full of enlightening background material on the historical settings for the early generation. A special strength of this book that will be of interest to Allen researchers is that it includes extensive transcriptions of primary source material for the VA Allens of this line, at least some of which is taken from WICKER. The work also includes a comprehensive name index.

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H.T.ALLEN
Henry T. Allen, "Allen", in Genealogy of Kentucky Families, From the Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, A-M (GPC 1981), 1-18

Although the genealogical argumentation here is often unpersuasive, General Allen presents a good deal of valuable early evidence in abstract form.

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MILLERS
Norma Carter Miller and George Lane Miller, Allens of the Southern States (BellevueWA: Gateway Press, 1989)

This is by far the most comprehensive published source on the Allens of this patrilineage, and while it is not the last word in research, the depth of research that underlies it renders it indispensible for any comprehensive view of the early Allens. And it carries scores of Allen lines down to the present. The Millers’ book is also to a fair extent a composite work, as it draws on the work of others. But the value of their work has been enhanced by the Miller’s skilled interpretation of the evidence. All that said, there is much more work to be done on these lines, and plenty of room for revisions. The conclusions in this book need to be weighed in the light of the more recent unpublished research of several researchers, especially Sarah Carter Allen (who was a major contributor to the book), and of Melba Allen of Mississippi, and perhaps others.

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WICKER
Richard Fenton Wicker, Jr., The Allen family of England, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Texas, and Illinois, 1600-1995 : the descendants of Captain William Allen and his wives, Hannah Watson and Mary Hunt Minge (VirginiaBeach: the author, 1995)

This is a comprehensive evidence-based old-fashioned genealogy covering the family and descendancy of William Allen of Albemarle. It follows General H.T. Allen in identifying William as the son and grandson of the two Williams of YorkCoVA, and posits, without any real foundation, a great-grandfather John. Wicker’s sources are mostly published abstracts, but he has most usefully provided transcriptions of many of the key original wills and certain other documents. He adduces much evidence in his family sketches, but he quite often fails to put his finger on what is crucial in his argumentation, and his method of source citation is inadequate—consisting as it does of simply listing a host of sources, casually identified, at the end of each family sketch. His coverage of the first few generations, though is thorough and generally adequate (except for the citations), and his conclusions are based on a good understanding of his sources and are generally sound.

Wicker’s book has been placed online by LDS FamilySearch, probably illegally since it is copyrighted, and furthermore, still in print. However, since I ordered the book from the author, sending him a check, but have never received it despite followup contact, I see no reason not to pass on the link to this online copy, here.

The ALLEN Haplogroup, I-L160+ (M161-):
the Deep Ancestral History of the ALLEN Patrilineage

While the focus in this project is on descendants of a particular man who first adopted the surname ALLEN (the founder of the ALLEN genealogical patrilineage), this ALLEN patriarch himself was but a single member of the broader patrilineage descended from an original yAdam (who strode the earth anywhere from 50-100,000 years ago), which comprises all males alive today. And just we test ySTR mutations to sort males into particular genealogical patrilineages, so a different kind of mutation—ySNP mutations—are being tested to map the whole history of humanity as it emerged from Africa and spread out across the continents.

ySNPs mutate so rarely that they are useless for differentiating male lineages over the genealogical time frame of a few hundreds of years, but they work very well in sorting out patrilineages over many thousands of years. As the yChromosome has been passed down from the original yAdam it has picked up characteristic sets of ySNPs that differentiate branches, and sub-branches, of the male tree of descent; in fact each ySNP mutation constitutes a potential branch point—if we can find the ySNP and figure out where it fits into the branching tree. To put this another way, each branching of the male tree of descent defines a new haplogroup, or subclade, and it has become possible in most cases to identify by SNP testing the deep ancestry of each patrilineage.

Advanced ySNP testing by member BillB-01 has ascertained that the most articulated branch of the human population tree this ALLEN patrilineage is known to belong to is defined by the ySNP mutation L160+. The “+” means that there are other more recent mutations that may apply too, but which haven’t yet been tested, and the “(M161-)” designation means that the mutation M161 has been tested for, but has come up negative (i.e. this patrilineage doesn’t belong to the M161 sub-branch). The ISOGG I-Haplogroup tree, which is updated frequently, is the best place to keep track of the most recently accepted SNPs, and this shows that I-L160 has been further differentiated by the SNPs Z118->S294/Z106, Z119, and Z125. This area of the haplotree is still murky, and FTDNA doesn’s offer tests yet for any of these SNPs.

All this deep only ancestry begins to be interesting to the extent that one is able to map the distribution of a particular subclade within the general history of the migrations and diffusion of the human population across the continents. From the analysis of the geographic dispersion of modern tested descendants (using surname as the principal clue to area of origin), and to a lesser extent from testing archaeological exhumations, we do have some rough ideas of the way that most of major subclades have diffused from their origins. For example, here is a map of the I2 subclade, which shows, by inference, that it probably originated in the Balkans, perhaps 20,000 years ago. Meanwhile, the dating of the M26 mutation defining the I2a1 subclade is estimated to have occurred anywhere from 4-12,000 years ago.

As for its distribution, the only place in the world where M26 is found in significant concentrations (40% in fact) is the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, but this is probably an artifact of that place’s isolation and inbreeding, and not necessarily an indicator that the first man to experience the M26 mutation was an islander. Otherwise, I-M26 appears to be distributed much like the predominant British haplogroup subclades of R1b, which account for anywhere from 60-80% of the British population: namely, it is found spread northwards from the Basque region of Spain, up the western European coast to Britain, and beyond, probably at least to the Jutland Peninsula (Denmark), but no further in the direction of Scandanavia. It is theorized that the early settlers of Britain (though they may not have been the first) wintered through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of 15-20,000 years ago in Iberia, then gradually followed the retreating glaciers north, along the coast. This map, showing the post-LGM distribution of the most important I-Haplogroup mutations, gives some idea of the distribution of I-M26 and its lack of prevalence compared to other I2 haplotype subclades.

In Britain itself, the presumed area of origin for the ALLEN I-M26 patrilineage, M26 is very uncommon. In fact a study (Capelli, 2003, Current Biology 13:980-981—note: the old name for I-M26, before I2a1, was I1b2) has been made of the distribution of haplotypes across the British Isles, and M26 was found only in a few regions of SW England, Wales, and the eastern Irish coast, and then only at concentrations of 2-3%. As it happens, the SW of England was the major source area for migration to Virginia, besides London and a few other large cities where indentured, and often convicted, transportees tended to originate.

Several members of the ALLEN Patrilineage Project also belong to the FTDNA I2a Project, in which I-Haplogroup expert Ken Nordtvedt has taken an interest. He has developed a method of inferring haplogroup subclades, and their known SNP definers, from haplotypes. Although his method has yet to be adopted by anyone else, and is certainly open to theoretical challenge, it does have the merit, if sound, of providing finer gradations of differentiation, preliminary to the identification of additional SNPs: thus applying his criteria, the ALLEN subclade has been further differentiated as I-M26-C.

This field of DNA-based human population studies is exploding, with new advances being made every year. In fact, as the current rate of progress continues to accelerate, I expect that before too many more years have passed, some of these subclades will be brought down into genealogical time, and may even become a shortcut means of identifying patrilineages. In the meantime, you can read more about haplogroups and their distribution across the continents at this site.

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Some Key DNA Terms: haplotype, haplogroup, patrilineage, RPH.

Some Key Published Sources: MILLERS, Bill_A_ALLEN, Donald_ALLEN, H.T.ALLEN, ALLENS OF CRIBBS CREEK, ALLENS OF FAYETTE, SIMMONS, WICKER,

ALLEN Patrilineage 1 Directory of Researchers

Active researchers of this ALLEN patrilineage are shown below. Those with highlighted names may be e-mailed by clicking on their names, and their posted descendancies may be viewed by clicking on their highlighted Patrilineage Project#s. Satellite members of the project are listed immediately after the principal researcher for the sublineage they are interested in, and their names are preceded by a dash. Where the person tested is not also the principal researcher, the former’s name appears under the latter’s, in parentheses.

Proj#  “Handle”   Principal Genealogist  
      (Test Subject)        
Test
Panel
FTDNA
Kit# 
A-23 Betty Betty Bybee Verplank
(Halbert Homer Bybee)
F111 228581
A-23a Hal Bybee
A-03 Bill_A William Alfred Allen F67 2105
A-01 Bill_B (himself) William Bernard Allen
F111 155344
A-01a —Pat Downey
A-12 Bill_B (LeeRoy) William Bernard Allen
(Lee Roy Allen)
F111 163235
A-12a —Kelly Allen
A-12b —Beverley Warshaw
A-06 Camilla Camilla (Allen) Mitchell
(William Douglas Allen)
F111 164024
A-06a —Doug Allen
A-02 Cary Cary Neal Allen F37 160029
A-17 Cindy (George) Cynthia Holder-Hiatt
(George Thomas Holder)
F67 120841
A-28 Cindy (Justin) Cynthia Holder-Hiatt
(Justin Holder)
F111 235333
A-22 Diane Diane Dobias Allen
(Harlan Burleigh Allen)
F111 88443
A-05 Donald Donald Lee Allen F111 172807
A-08 Donna Donna Kay Bailey
(Danny Ray Allen)
F111 121393
A-04 Dr.Bob Robert Shepherd Allen F111 93103
A-11 Geoff Geoffrey Robert Nesbitt F111 86737
A-20 Greg Gregory William Allen F37 169296
A-27 John Robb John Barrett Robb
(donor anonymous)
F111 268192
A-25 Joe (JamesM) Joseph Edward Allen
(James Michael Allen)
F111 170166
A-26 Joe (JohnD) Joseph Edward Allen
(John David Allen)
F37 209377
A-18 John John Joseph Allen F111 N31075
A-07 LouDean LouDean (Allen) Mayes
(Ira Wilson Allen Jr)
F111 57662
A-09 Lynda Melynda (Allen) Page
(Clinton Thomas Allen)
F111 116075
A-10 Owen Owen Allen F67 N20401
A-19 Rev.Rod Rodney Dale Allen F111 180265
A-15 Rob Robert Lewis Allen F111 132792
A-13 Sandra Sandra (Harris) Hunt
(Hugh E. Harris)
F111 111309
A-21 Sarah Sarah (Allen) Dacus
(Phillip Stanley Allen)
F37 183693
A-24 Scott Christopher Scott Allen F111 199275
A-14 Winston Winston Allen F37 145772

To Join this ALLEN Patrilineage 1 Project

This project is open only to males who have already DNA-tested at Family Tree DNA on 37 markers or more and been found to match closely to the project reference type (the RPH), and/or to the genealogists who have sponsored the tests of such males. Those who have taken less discriminating tests (the FTDNA 25-marker test, or tests at other companies) are strongly encouraged to upgrade their tests to FTDNA-37 or FTDNA-67. These are the only tests on the market which have sufficient mutational sensitivity to make it possible to help sort members of the patrilineage into different family branches.

If you have tested to a lesser standard and believe that your genealogy meshes with the one for this project, please contact me, and I'll be happy to evaluate your existing test results in light of your genealogy. Most of those who have tested at other companies can upgrade to FTDNA-37 by printing out this form and ordering the 37-marker test through the FTDNA ALLEN Surname project.

Or, if you have tested at FTDNA to either 12 or 25 markers, you may upgrade through your personal FTDNA webpage for $99, or $49 respectively.

If you are simply an ALLEN genealogist who hasn’t DNA-tested yet, and if you are a male surnamed ALLEN or have found a related one to test, you should seriously consider ordering the 37-marker test through the ALLEN FTDNA Surname project. The discounted price for ordering it through the project is $149—$30 less than the best Ancestry.com test even though it offers 62% more mutational sensitivity. Even if your test results don’t match the template for this Allen 1 project, you might qualify for the other, Allen (R) Project which has been organized along similar lines, and if you are of a different ALLEN patrilineage from either of these, there are still another 300+ FTDNA-tested ALLENs in the ALLEN Surname project to whom you might match.

The reason the FTDNA 37-marker test is required is that it includes in the 28-37 marker segment the majority of the markers which are most likely to have mutated during genealogical time. We are able to post for comparison any of the tested markers offered by any of the testing companies, and if or when any of them chooses to offer a test with the mutational sensitivity of FTDNA-37 or better, we will consider recommending their test as well. We are not beholden to any particular testing company in this project. It is simply a matter of merit. However, FTDNA has been the premier company in this field since it pioneered testing for purposes of genetic genealogy in the year 2000, and its database of already tested males is far larger than those of all the other testing companies put together.

ALLEN Patrilineage 1 Project NEWS

30Mar2010

The ALLEN Patrilineage Project web pages are up!

27Apr2011

Project member Rev.Rod-19 has been connected to the tree of William Allen of Albemarle. Rod has also sponsored the compilation of the ALLENs in the Buckingham County land, and personal property tax, records—available above via links in the “Resources & Evidence” box.

3Nov2012

A new ALLEN 1 research project is underway. In this project, organized by patrilineage member Donald Lee Allen, John Robb will make a careful examination of the evidence underlying the researchers of the MILLERS book. et al., and attempt to find additional evidence heretofore overlooked. A primary goal of this project will be to try to connect the various known ALLEN patriarchs to each other. The fruits of John’s labors will be posted to this page in the form of linked PDFs. Watch this Patrilineage Project NEWS space for further developments.

13Nov2012

Please welcome new patrilineage project member, Hal Bybee. Despite his non-ALLEN surname, Hal’s test results clearly show him to be a close cousin of Bill_B, and a descendant of Texas patriarch James T. ALLEN, born 1832 in Tennessee. [see below under 26Mar2013 for a revision of this statement.]

Please welcome new patrilineage project member, Sarah Dacus. She is a close cousin of project member LouDean Mayes, as her DNA clearly indicates, and thus a descendant of Joseph Allen (born say 1760) of ElbertCoGA.

16Nov2012

The Patrilineage Project Haplotype Chart has been expanded to 111 markers, and the test results of the three 111-marker pioneers, Dr.Bob-04, LouDean-07, and Donald-05, have been posted.

John Robb has published Report 1 of the research project series, all about new and potential developments regarding the ALLEN 1 DNA.

1Dec2012

Please welcome new patrilineage project members Diane & Harlan Allen. Harlan is a descendant of William of MecklenburgCoVA through his son Meredith, and Diane is the principal genealogist for this line. Diane has researched this line very thoroughly, mostly getting down to the primary records which few genealogists do, and she has published an extensive, evidence-laden report on the William descendancy, focusing on her line.

Meanwhile, Harlan has agreed to extend his haplotype to 111 markers which turns out to be quite important because he shares the mutation CDYb=33 with Dr.Bob-04, a descendant of William through his son Drury. Since these two share a mutation, it would seem probable that they inherited it from these different sons of William who must therefore have borne it himself, yet two other project members, Lynda-09, and John-18, also claim descent from William yet lack the CDYb=33 mutation. Since Dr.Bob has already extended to 111 markers, finding two new mutations, with a little luck additional testing will resolve this contradiction, and turn up a mutation that we can reliable associate with the patriarch William of MecklenburgCo.

26Mar2013

The latest new members of the project are Scott Allen (#A-24), and Joe Allen (#A-25 and A-26). I am still in the process of finalizing Scott’s and Joe’s pedigrees, and these will be posted later. Joe appears to be a close cousin of project member Greg-20 and the DNA of these two is consistent with that hypothesis.

The biggest news this time is that all the extensions to 111 markers have been completed, analyzed by me, and incorporated into the charts, and with the release of this version of the webpages, I am also sending out a report on some of the implications of the new DNA results, and describing the revisions I’ve made to the DNA Comparison section of the web page. In brief, I've eliminated all of the TMRCA matrices, and the 67-marker matrices, leaving only an updated version of the 37-marker GD matrix, and a new 111-marker GD matrix that I believe to be significantly more accurate and meaningful as a representation of the architecture of the overall patrilineage than anything we have had before. I go into this subject in considerable detail in my report.

The principal result of the extensions was to identify an invaluable new mutation, DYS504=16, that appears to mark the lineages of both William1 of MecklenburgCoVA and Reynold1 of IredellCoNC, and thus bands these two early ALLEN patriarchs quite closely together. We thus have distinctive mutations now for all four of the early patriarchs (the other two being Robert1 of HenricoCoVA and William1 of AlbemarleCoVA), except that this new mutations doesn't distinguish between the lines of William and Reynold, who are likely either brothers or first cousins. A full analysis of the grounds for these inferences will be found in my DNA report, which is going out to everyone in the patrilineage project directory, as well as to all subscribers to the ALLEN 1 research project.

One of the more interesting findings of the 111-marker extensions is that project member Hal, and the principal genealogist for his line, Betty Bybee Verplank (henceforth to be known as “Betty-23”), who appeared at 37 markers to be a close cousin of Bill_B of Texas lineage, turns out at 111 markers to be only very distantly related to Bill, but instead rather closely related to five other ALLENs—principally descendants of William of Mecklenburg, and Betty-23 shares the DYS504=16 mutation that is distinctive of William and Reynold’s line. Betty and others have done a great deal of research on this BYBEE family, and I’ve been working with her, both to clarify her deeper ancestry, and see where an NPE may have occurred in Hal’s particular line. Meanwhile, a close relative of Hal, Betty Bybee Verplank, has stepped forward with all sorts of Bybee evidence, some accumulated by her, and much by other Bybee researchers, and she is going to play the role of principal researcher representing that line, although both she and Hal will be in the project directory, and on the contact list. It seems that the BYBEE line runs back through early GoochlandCo, and before that to the earliest Virginia settlements of the 1620s, although it cannot be traced definitively farther back than GoochlandCo. It appears, therefore, that the ALLEN-BYBEE NPE probably occurred in one of these early VA counties, and since BYBEE is a rare surname, its presence may now serve as a marker for ALLENs of the ALLEN 1 persuasion.

The one thing remaining to be done on the DNA side (besides posting Scott’s haplotype (which adds no new knowledge), is to revise the Mutation History Tree. IN THE MEANTIME THE MUTATION HISTORY TREE SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED REPRESENTATIVE OF WHAT WE NOW KNOW FROM THE DNA, ALTHOUGH IT IS STILL ACCURATE IN MANY OF ITS PARTS.

Next up is to finish incorporating new members Scott and Joe into the project, and completion of the ALLEN research report that I will be sending out to all the subscribers of that project.

17Apr2013

Please welcome new patrilineage project member, Scott Allen (#A-24). His ALLEN line traces back from Texas to the same area of NW Louisiana as member Cary-02, whom I think must be a close cousin, and from there, most probably, to Johnston County, NC, where descendants of patriarchs Robert and Reynold are found. Both Scott and Cary are extending their tests to 111-markers, and I expect that between this, and more research, we will be able to coalesce their lines at some point.

15Jul2013

I have posted today the first three in a series of research reports on the early ALLENs of Virginia, all in the form of PDFs accessible via links in navigation panel at the upper left corner of this page. The first report, titled, “The Virginia Background”, provides an introduction and overview to the two data reports that accompany it: “ALLEN Virginia Immigrants & Land Owners”, and “ALLENS in the Virginia Probate Records, pre-1800”.

And to supplement and qualify these comprehensive compendiums of ALLEN data, I have also posted a “Virginia Counties thru 1775, and their records”, a list of all the Virginia counties that came into existence during the colonial period, together with their parent counties, and itemizing for each, the principal types of county records that have survived, and their date ranges. This records inventory is an essential element for grasping the ALLEN research problem, because there has been massive records loss for the two most important counties for ALLEN Patrilineage 1: New Kent, and Hanover.

No great breakthroughs are presented here-only a painstaking compilation of data that may play a role in future breakthroughs, and provide an outline for an exhaustive ALLEN research program, some of which I intend to undertake myself, as part of this project. It is to be hoped that other ALLEN researchers will find these resources valuable as well.

8Jun2014

A number of major changes and additions to this project and its web pages, and to ALLEN research in general, are in the works.

New Patrilineage 1 Project Members

First, please welcome new member Cynthia Hiatt-Holder to the project. Cindy has taken over as principal genealogist from former member Karen Holder, and has sponsored a DNA test for a second male descendant of her HOLDER/ALLEN patriline. With her genealogical contribution, and my own work on her line, I have at last been able to post a pedigree for these HOLDER/ALLENs that reflects all of the known evidence pertaining to them.

Second, a crucial contribution has been made to this project through the quality research and analysis of Bill Simmons of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the sponsorship of a DNA test of his ALLEN line by ALLEN Surname Project angel and co-administrator, Diane Click. Unfortunately, Bill himself is in ill health, but he has published a first rate book on his line, and has asked me to represent him in the project as principal genealogist, which I am very glad to do. I have pushed his line a generation or two farther back to the beginnings of ALLEN Patrilineage 1 in Virginia, making use both of my exhaustive study of the early ALLEN evidence for Virginia, and of the extensive work I’ve done on the ALLENs of North Carolina for, and in collaboration with, Diane Click. I haven’t posted the pedigree for this new member yet, but will do so in connection with the major reconstruction of the top of the ALLEN tree that I’m working on, and will be publishing in the next few weeks.

Patrilineage 1 DNA Update

I have posted to the project haplotype chart all member extensions to 111-markers, as well as the results of the special DYS464X tests I’ve recommended, to the project haplotype chart, though I haven’t yet updated the mutation history tree: that will be done in the next installment. Rather than extensively rewrite the long and detailed DNA-analytical papers I’ve sent you that delve deep into my methodology, I’ve composed instead a summary analysis of what The ALLEN Patrilineage 1 DNA has to tell us about the structure of the tree of descent from the earliest patriarchs.

Patrilineage 1 Research Update

I’ve now studied all the surviving evidence on the first several generations of ALLENs of the Virginia counties of NewKent, Henrico, Hanover, Brunswick, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, and most of the evidence in the immediately downstream North Carolina counties of Bertie, Edgecombe, Pitt, Northampton, Bute, and Wake. I’ve also taken a close look at some of the South Carolina evidence, focusing on the families of David Allen of SpartanburgCo, and on that of Josiah of EdgefieldCoSC, one of the few positively known grandsons of the first Robert.

Most of this evidence is abstracted and presented in MILLERs, but I have looked at much of this evidence in its original records context, for example the complete transcribed St Peter’s and St Paul’s parish records, and in other cases I’ve gone to the original manuscript records to satisfy myself that the abstracts are accurate and complete, or to supplement them where they aren’t. Most significantly, I’ve recreated the all-important geographical dimension by locating the land patented by ALLENs in the context of their neighborhoods. In the early days of settlement, most intercourse, both social and economic, took place between neighbors, and the nature and quality, as well as the quantity of a man’s land provides clues to their role and standing in society, and their likely inter-relationships. I’ve also factored in the likely onomastic, or child-naming, patterns of these early ALLENs.

I will be publishing two papers in the next installment of these pages. The first will make conclusive a theory advanced in MILLERS: that Reynold of IredellCoNC, William of MecklenburgCoVA, and David of SpartanburgCoSC were brothers. The second will somewhat speculatively reconstruct the entire top of the ALLEN tree in Virginia in the most plausible way given the totality of the extant evidence.

Rejuvenation of the FTDNA ALLEN Surname Project
and ALLEN Patrilineage 1

Since I have assumed the administration of the large ALLEN surname project, in tandem with my friend, sometime client, and ALLEN genealogist colleague, Diane Click, I have (re-)classified all the haplotypes that have been accumulating in the surname project into their respective patrilineages, and numbered the patrilineages for identification purposes, roughly in order of their size. This has resulted in the identification of a number of potential new members of this patrilineage project, a couple of whom have now been added and integrated into the project, and there are others whom I will be contacting in due course.

As it turns out, the two largest patrilineages (of about equal size) are the ones for which I was commissioned to create patrilineage projects: this one, heretofore called the ALLEN (I) Patrilineage, and the other, called the ALLEN (R) Patrilineage. I have now renamed these ALLEN Patrilineage 1, and ALLEN Patrilineage 2. Between them, they account for the ySTR DNA haplotypes of about 21% of all ALLENs tested. Thus, if we were to test an American male surnamed ALLEN chosen at random, there would be about a 1 in 5 chance that he would fall into one of these two patrilineages.

Incident to my reorganization of the ALLEN Surname Project, I have created a new project framework with its own internet presence, consisting of an omnibus Directory of ALLEN Researchers, organized by patrilineage, with an entry for each member who has responded to the personalized welcoming emails I’ve been sending out. Besides the grouping into patrilineages, each listing identifies the principal genealogist behind each haplotype (with his/her name made an email contact link), the name of the DNA donor (where the donor and the genealogist aren’t the same person), the Kit#, and the basic vital information for the earliest known patrilineal ancestor of the line—or in other words all the other information one might wish that FTDNA would have included in their yDNA test results page. The results themselves may be accessed on the FTDNA page by Copying the Kit# from the Directory page entry, clicking the “ALLEN yDNA Haplotypes” link at the top of the Directory page to go to the FTDNA results page, then hitting CTL-F and Pasting the Kit# into the browser page search blank and hitting ENTER.

Initially, the listings in this directory comprised only the members of the existing Patrilineage 1 and 2 projects, but other ySTR DNA-tested members of the ALLEN surname project are being added as I hear from them. I have also encouraged all of the many surname project members who haven’t yet tested to the ySTR 37-marker standard to do so, so that their haplotypes can be classified by patrilineage. Overall, there are about 45 numbered ALLEN patrilineages with two or more members, and about 80 unmatched singletons, for a total of more than 125 mutually unrelated ALLEN surname bloodlines. Despite the large number of unmatched singletons, over 70% of males surnamed ALLEN who test can expect to come up with at least one ALLEN patrilineage match, and I expect that in time the majority of singletons will also find matches.

Because the ALLEN Surname Project is an open project that any FTDNA customer can join, a couple of hundred of the nearly 600 listed members of the ALLEN Surname Project either haven’t ordered a ySTR test on a male surnamed ALLEN, or haven’t tested to the 37-marker standard necessary for patrilineage classification. As a result, their membership has been, and will continue to be, useless to them genealogically. The best we can do for these people is to encourage them to find a male surnamed ALLEN of their line to test, and/or to extend the haplotype of their DNA donor to 37 markers.

In addition to free listing in the ALLEN Surname Project Directory of Researchers, we are offering, for modest fees, to set up patrilineage projects for sets of matching members who may be interested, or, for those who have no ALLEN matches as yet, to at least validate and post their ancestral pedigrees to an ALLEN Singletons page. Members of the Surname Project who choose to take this next step toward leveraging their DNA-testing for genealogical purposes thereby become members of the ALLEN Patrilineages Association (the APA), and their entry in the Directory of Researchers includes a link to their posted pedigree on their patrilineage project pages.

We are also in the process of creating for each APA member pedigree (starting with those posted in the Patrilineage 1 and 2 projects) an APA Places Index that will have an entry for each vital event (birth, marriage, or death) in a posted pedigree that can be documented as having occurred in a particular county, or other comparable jurisdictional place. This entry also includes a link that will bring up the corresponding pedigree within the context of its associated patrilineage. The APA Places index will thus provide an internet resource that will allow any ALLEN researcher who has traced his line back to a particular county, to see whether any APA member ALLEN ancestors may have left a paper trail there, and it will also alert the browsing researcher when ALLENs of more than one patrilineage have have a history in the same county.


ALLEN Patrilineage 1 ySTR DNA Haplotypes Compared

The following matrices, one for 37-marker comparisons, and one for 111-marker comparisons (for those project members who have extended to 111) provide some idea of the closeness of relationship between each pair of test subjects of this patrilineage. The cell at the intersection of each column/row pair shows the GD (Genetic Distance) between the pair—basically, the total number of mutations that has occurred in both of their lines of descent since their MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) walked the earth.

It is also possible to create corresponding matrices that show TMRCA (Time back to the MRCA, expressed either in generations or in years), but I have decided to forgo such charts because they are just too misleading as indicators of when a particular MRCA lived. Mutations are so sporadic and infrequent (even when a large number of markers is tested) that such estimates, expressed in years, can easily be off by 100-200 years either way. If one has the urge to play around with TMRCA estimates between one’s own haplotype and those of one’s closest matches, the best way to do that is to run the built-in FTDNA Tip calculator from one’s personal page—and be sure to input the number of generations for which one knows, genealogically, that you and your match cannot have had a common ancestor.

While the GD, at least, is exact, there is no obvious way to tell how the mutations divide between the two subjects, because the haplotype of their common ancestor, from whom they have mutated, is unknown. However, I have developed a procedure using the GD chart for inferring the haplotype of the common ancestor, which I call the Root Prototype Haplotype (RPH), and I use this as a basis for marking mutations in the ySTR DNA Haplotypes chart, elsewhere on this page.

FTDNA provides advisories for classifying GDs between haplotype pairs for their degree of closeness, or to put it otherwise, for the probability that the two have a common male ancestor within genealogical time, and thus belong to the same (genealogical) patrilineage. Unfortunately, neither FTDNA’s37-marker GD advisory, nor its 67-marker GD advisory can be relied on for an adequate elucidation of this subject. Although the latter does note the relevance of genealogical evidence, which is an improvement over the confused and misleading text of the 37-marker advisory, it too fails to note the crucial importance of two haplotypes sharing a common surname, and the too stringent Relatedness categories of the 37-marker advisory have been relaxed but only at the expense of inconsistent scaling by the respective average mutation rate of the panels.

None of this would matter for our purposes here if Dean McGee’s YUtil program, which I use to construct the 37-marker GD matrix below, didn't adopt a color-coding scheme based on FTDNA’s inconsistent categorization. Thus in the 37-marker matrix haplotype pairs are Related, Probably Related, or just Possibly Related, but in the 111-marker matrices that the beta version of his program produces, these categories are loosened in accordance with FTDNA’s attempt to allow for other relatedness factors (like surname correspondence, and convergence of genealogies) which may or may not apply. And there are other problems with YUtil’s 111-marker matrices.

Consequently, I have constructed my own 111-marker matrix by hand, and have scaled the relatedness categories for the 111 markers comparably to those of the 37-marker panel, and have color-coded them correspondingly, though I have altered the relatedness terms to Definitely, Probably, or just Possibly related. I hasten to emphasize that these color-coded categories are appropriate only in cases where the surname is different, and where there is no known convergence of the respective genealogies of a particular haplotype pair. Where either or both of these factors obtain, one may reasonably shave several numbers off of the GD of a haplotype pair before rejecting the relationship as too distant to fit into the same patrilineage.

Another important principle not made clear by the FTDNA text (although there are signs of trying) is that the relationship of an outlier to the the group is to be judged by the number and closeness of his nearest approach to it, i.e. by his lowest GD numbers, not his highest or average GD.

Finally, although the infrequent and sporadic nature of the mutation process requires that one mentally add or subtract one or two from the GD for any particular haplotype pair to get some idea of its inaccuracy as a measure, the overall structure of the matrix for a largish patrilineage tends to paint a much more accurate picture of the depth of the patrilineage as a whole. And this is particularly true for a largish matrix of 111-marker haplotypes. In fact, it is largely for this reason that I believe such matrices to be of genealogical value: not so much because they accurately indicate relationships between any particular pair, as because they provide a reasonably accurate idea of the relationship of all to each other, and to the MRCA that they all have in common. Even for outliers, as long as there is one closer GD relationship across the group, we may reasonably classify them as of the same patrilineage, in accordance with the principle I’ve just stated.

-

37-Marker Haplotype Genetic Distance Comparison Matrix
(the lowest numbers represent the closest relationships)

Genetic Distances, ALLEN Patrilineage 1, from 37-marker ySTR DNA Comparisons

Color-coding shows whether a haplotype pair Definitely, Probably, or just Possibly belongs to the patrilineage.

The number in each cell is the number of divergent mutations between each pair of haplotypes.

The lowest numbers represent the closest relationships.

Whether an outlier haplotype belongs to the same patrilineage should be judged by its lowest GD number.

However, the color-coded categories and the GD numberss don’t take account either the common surname that most of these haplotype pairs share, or the possible convergence
of their genealogical evidence at a particular time and place, and where either of these conditions obtain, 2 or 3 can reasonably be subtracted from the indicated GD.

The number of marker comparisons is shown here as 35, not 37, because multicopy markers are counted as single markers by YUtil.

-


-

111-Marker Haplotype Genetic Distance Comparison Matrix for ALLEN Patrilineage 1
(the lowest numbers represent the closest relationships)

Genetic Distances, ALLEN Patrilineage 1, from 111-marker ySTR DNA Comparisons

Color-coding shows whether a haplotype pair Definitely, Probably, or just Possibly belongs to the patrilineage.

The number in each cell is the number of divergent mutations between each pair of haplotypes.

The lowest numbers represent the closest relationships.

Whether an outlier haplotype belongs to the patrilineage should be judged by its lowest GD number.

However, the color-coded categories and the GD numberss don’t take account either the common surname that most of these haplotype pairs share, or the possible convergence
of their genealogical evidence at a particular time and place, and where either of these conditions obtain, 2 or 3 can reasonably be subtracted from the indicated GD.

The number of marker comparisons is shown here as 102, not 111, because multicopy markers are counted as single markers by YUtil.


The ALLEN Patrilineage 1 Mutation History Tree

*** THE MUTATION HISTORY TREE HAS NOT BEEN REVISED TO TAKE ACCOUNT OF THE MANY EXTENSIONS TO 111 MARKERS,
*** OF THE SEVERAL NEW MEMBERS OF THE PROJECT, OR OF THE MAJOR HYPOTHETICAL GENEALOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF
*** THE TOP OF THE TREE THAT IS IN PROGRESS. THE LOWER LEVEL GROUPINGS BY MUTATION, THOUGH, ARE STILL VALID.

The following tree chart shows the accumulated mutations for each tested descendant of the MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) of this Allen Patrilineage. The MRCA appears at the top of the tree, and the tested members of the project at the bottom, identified by their Allen Patrilineage Project#, and the “handle” of the principal researcher for each tested member’s line. The other numbers in the chart represent mutations that have occurred, and accumulated, in certain lineages. The three members listed at the bottom of the first column (06-Camilla, 09-Lynda, and 11-Geoff) have a straight, no-mutation descent from the MRCA. Of these three, I have somewhat arbitrarily chosen 06-Camilla as the current RPH of the project—the haplotype that most closely resembles that of the project MRCA, compared with which, the mutations of the others are determined.

The mutations are represented by the numeric IDs of the ySTR markers tested by FTDNA with the “DYS” prefixes truncated to save space. The marker number is followed by a “+” or a “-” to indicate whether the mutation resulted in the gain or loss of a repeat; where there is a two step difference between a member’s marker and that of the RPH, this will be shown as two separate mutations.

The GD (Genetic Distance) between any two members of the patrilineage is equivalent to the number of mutations encountered when tracing a path from their “handle” at the bottom of the tree to that of the other member. For the FTDNA 37-marker panel, one unit of GD between two members suggests that they are related no more closely than second cousins—that their most recent common ancestor was a mutual great-grandfather who lived 3 generations back. In the same way a GD of two between them, would suggest a common ancestor 6 generations back, and so forth. But these are only very rough estimates, and each unit of GD could easily be off by a generation or two either way.

Furthermore, where two members are known not to have a common ancestor a certain number of generations back, this pushes their most recent common ancestor back that many generations plus a couple more. Thus, 06-Camilla (the RPH), who has a GD of 1 from a majority of the other members of the project, and who is known to have no common ancestor with any of them for at least the last three generations has a 25% chance of having a common ancestor with any of her GD 1 cousins 4 generations back, a 60% chance 6 generations back, and an 80% chance 8 generations back (which takes us to about 1700, at 34 years per generation). With Camilla’s perfect 37/37 match to 09-Lynda and 11-Geoff, the odds of a common ancestor with them at 4 generations back go up to 36%, at 6 generations to 74%, and 8 generations to 90%. Since Camilla and Lynda have both tested out to 67 markers, with a perfect 67/67 match, the odds that they have a common ancestor 4 generations back are 44%, 6 generations back 82%, and 8 generations 94%.

Allen Patrilineage 1 Mutation History Tree

* Mutation 572-, shared by Bill_A and Rev.Rod, may not be shared by Bill_B, who has tested only to 37 markers; thus the latter may not fit into the tree at this point.


ALLEN Patrilineage 1 yDNA Haplotypes

The chart below shows the haplotypes for each tested project member of this patrilineage. I’ve decapitated most of the marker names (truncating “DYS393” to just “393”) to improve readability. The colored markers mutate slower or faster than the norm. Thus, [DYS]439 is fast, [DYS]458 is faster, and CDYa&b are blazing, while [DYS]393 is slow. Shared mutations to slow markers are the most valuable as they are almost sure to have been inherited from a common ancestor, whereas shared mutations to fast markers may have occurred independently in two or more ancestral lines.

Haplotype Identifiers FTDNA 37-Marker Panel FTDNA Markers 38-67 FTDNA Markers 68-111 Haplotype Identifiers

Proj
#
 Principal
 Genealogist
Earliest Known Ancestor
Name
(Birth - Death)
c=circa   s=say
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
I
3
9
2
3
8
9
I
I
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y
G
-
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
S
1
a
3
9
5
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
a
4
1
3
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
7
1
0
4
8
5
6
3
2
4
9
5
5
4
0
7
1
4
7
1
6
7
1
7
5
0
5
5
5
6
5
4
9
5
8
9
5
2
2
4
9
4
5
3
3
6
3
6
5
7
5
6
3
8
4
6
2
4
5
2
4
4
5
Y
G
-
A
1
0
4
6
3
4
4
1
Y
G
-
1
B
0
7
5
2
5
7
1
2
5
9
3
6
5
0
5
3
2
7
1
5
5
0
4
5
1
3
5
6
1
5
5
2
7
2
6
6
3
5
5
8
7
6
4
3
4
9
7
5
1
0
4
3
4
4
6
1
4
3
5

Proj
#
 Principal
 Genealogist
A-01  Bill B. Allen JamesT,1832,WiseCoTX 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 1520 30 11g 14g 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 33 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 20 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 21 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 11 11 A-01  Bill B. Allen
A-12  Bill B.(LeeRoy) Allen JamesT,1832,WiseCoTX 13 24 16 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 1520 29 11 11 14 14+ 10 12 1121 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 20 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-12  Bill B. (LeeRoy) Allen
A-23  Betty (Bybee) Verplank Pleasant Bybee,1835,Fluv.CoVA 13 25 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 1520 29 11g 14g 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 33 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 12 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-23  Betty (Bybee)
A-27  JBR (James R. Allen) Jacob Allen (s1708 - 1762 PittCoNC) 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 12 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 07 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 31 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 10 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 27 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-27  JBR (James R. Allen)
A-17  Cindy (George) Holder Johnson Holder (c1830 TN -) 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 15 15 10 11 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 A-17  Cindy (George) Holder
A-28  Cindy (Justin) Holder Johnson Holder (c1830 TN -) 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 15 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 07 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 12 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 12 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-17  Cindy (Justin) Holder
A-18  John Allen Wm,s1729,MecklenburgCoVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 29 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-18  John Allen
A-11  Geoff Nesbitt Robert Nesbitt,1831,TX 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-11  Geoff Nesbitt
A-22  Diane Allen Wm,s1729,MecklenburgCoVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 33 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-22  Diane Allen
A-10  Owen Allen Russell,1828,AL 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 33 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 A-10  Owen Allen
A-04  Dr. Bob Allen Wm,s1729,MecklenburgCoVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 33 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 14 15 9 12 11 A-04  Dr.Bob
A-09  Lynda Page Wm,s1729,MecklenburgCoVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 12 20 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-09  Lynda Page
A-15  Rob Allen Reynold,s1724,IredellNC 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 17 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 29 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-15  Rob Allen
A-06  Camilla Mitchell James,1814,GonzalesCoTX 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 16 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-06  Camilla Mitchell
A-19  Rev.Rod Allen William,s1687,AlbemarleVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 11 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 25 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-19  Rev.Rod Allen
A-05  Donald Allen William,s1687,AlbemarleVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 11 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 27 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-05  Donald Allen
A-03  Bill A. Allen William,s1687,AlbemarleVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 30 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 11 10 12 11 A-03  Bill A. Allen
A-13  Sandra Hunt Frank Harris,1850,AL 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 35 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-13  Sandra Hunt
A-24  Scott Allen Gideon, abt 1794, TX? 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 10 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 22 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-24  Scott Allen
A-02  Cary Allen William, say 1781, NC? 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 25 15 20 29 11g 13g 14g 15g 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 10 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 A-02  Cary Allen
A-08  Donna Bailey Robert,s1680,HenricoCoVA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-08  Donna Bailey
A-14  Winston Allen CharlesHenryFM,c1825,AL 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 A-14  Winston Allen
A-25  Joe (JamesM) Allen David,c1796,ClevelandCoNC 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 00 29 11 11 14 14 10 12 1121 14 12 16 19 33 35 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 00 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 12 21 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 22 18 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-25  Joe (JamesM) Allen
A-26  Joe (JohnD) Allen David,c1796,ClevelandCoNC 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 00 29 11 11 14 14 10 11 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 A-26  Joe (JohnD) Allen
A-20  Greg Allen [Larkin?], c1765, NC 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 20 29 11 14 14 15 10 11 11 21 14 12 16 19 33 34 12 10 A-20  Greg Allen
A-07  LouDean Mayes Joseph,1760,ElbertCoGA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 20 29 11g 14g 14g 14g 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 18 33 34 12 10 11 8 16 16 8 12 10 8 11 7 12 21 21 16 11 12 12 14 8 11 21 20 13 13 10 13 12 10 12 11 30 14 8 16 11 26 27 18 11 11 10 11 11 9 12 11 10 12 13 30 11 12 22 15 10 13 21 15 20 11 25 17 12 14 26 12 21 19 12 15 15 9 12 11 A-07  LouDean Mayes
A-21  Sarah Dacus Joseph,1760,ElbertCoGA 13 24 15 10 12 12 11 15 11 13 11 28 16 8 8 11 11 24 15 20 29 11 14 14 14 10 12 11 21 14 12 16 18 34 34 12 10 A-21  Sarah Dacus

You may click on highlighted Project#s (like A-01) to see the posted pedigree for a particular test subject. Click on highlighted Researcher names, like Bill_B Allen to go to the project directory that shows the full names of the members, and provides clickable e-mail links for the names highlighted there.

The test subject whose “Earliest Known Ancestor” is colored red is the one whose haplotype differs the least from all the others and is therefore designated the Root Prototype Haplotype (RPH)—the haplotype that is likely to be the closest to that of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of the group. Marker values that deviate from those of the RPH are deemed to be mutations, and are highlighted in lime green—or tomato, for multistep mutations. Markers with null values, due to deletions, are rendered in dark seagreen.

Where the multicopy markers DYS464 and YCA (each taken as a whole) diverge in value from those of the RPH, the whole adjacent set of values will be colored yellow green, and will be counted as a single mutation. In the same way, reclOH mutations, which may affect several blocks of separated markers, will be colored orange and treated all as a single mutation for purposes of calculating Genetic Distance.

For haplotypes A-01, -12, and -23,I originally scored DYS464 and the CDYs as a single reclOH mutation, but the extension of A-01 and -23 to 111 markers has changed my ming about that. Haplotype A-12, meanwhile, was at the same time extended from 12 to 67 markers and his DYS464 was found to have extra values, viz. 11-11-14-14-14-15. Consequently, A-01 and A-23 should be retested with the special DYS464X test to get a more definitive read on 464; in the meantime, I have treated them all three of these haplotypes the same—i.e. ignoring those extra values for A-12.

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